Middle School Math Makeover

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Tracy Frank, Sun Prairie, WI   tracyfrankinfinitesolutions@gmail.com

If I could change one thing about middle school math it would be for us to stop using middle school math placement as the marker of status in schools. In fact I believe schools should be a place where we work to equalize status instead of mimicking the status that students have or do not have outside of the classroom.

What I have seen play out in over 100 middle schools that I have visited and supported as a teacher leader and instructional coach for CPM Educational Program over the past 10 years is that middle school math placement means that white and Asian middle to upper class students have the most access to accelerated math. Years of messages about who is good at math leads to these students having positive math identities. In general, the status that the students walk into the building with, from their social position outside of school, is maintained in middle schools through the use of math placement. The idea that there are kids that are better than others or less than others is never directly said to any students, yet the students clearly see who is in which classrooms and base their own math mindsets, sense of math agency, and their math identities, around this systematic decision of middle school math placement. I have visited middle schools in five different states, in rural, suburban and urban settings, and I have seen this to be true in all of these cases. Those students with the most status outside of school are often placed in a higher math class in middle school.

Yet I rarely see that status being used to place kids into different English classes, science classes, or social studies classes. For some reason math has historically been the subject where we make different assignments based on “ability.” I put ability in quotes because the assignments are often more likely based on perceived ability, prior achievement, and academic disposition than they are on true ability, thus resulting in status groups. Jo Boaler’s research has shown us that there really is not much difference in our students’ mathematical abilities. In all my visits to CPM classrooms I never came across a school that offered truly heterogeneous math classes for middle school students. In the few cases where I have seen schools close to it, it has been amazing to watch all students engage at a high level. Research has shown that our highest performing students do best in heterogeneous classrooms. Yet in school systems there is fear of removing the hierarchy of math courses. The fear comes from the responses of families who feel their students should have access to Algebra in 8th grade as a sign of intelligence, and they feel they are being denied this status marker.

I have seen schools with racially integrated populations look completely segregated in the math classrooms inside the same building. In more than one location I have witnessed middle school math classrooms that are 85% white, right next to middle school math classrooms that are made up of 95% black and brown students. What is the difference in the two classrooms? One is called 7th grade accelerated math while the other is called 7th grade co-taught math (I do not need to tell you which is which) and the status and identities unintentionally assigned to these two different classrooms play out in one set of As and Bs in math and another set of Ds and Fs in math (again, I do not need to tell you which occurs in which classroom). These realities are unacceptable in 2020, especially since research shows us effective alternatives. Educational malpractice is occuring in our middle school math classrooms around this nation. It is traumatic for me to just walk into and witness these realities several times a year, so imagine what it does long term to students who live it daily. This is the achievement gap or, more appropriately named, the opportunity gap, that those of us in education have the power to change. This is systematic racism at work in our schools. This history has played out the same way for too long and the time for change has long passed.

The students in the classes with lower statuses will likely not only have less access to deeper and richer mathematics, but they will likely not identify as mathematicians or choose STEM careers. What budding scientist or engineer has our nation missed out on by our choices to segregate middle school math classes based on “ability”? We know mindset, agency, and identity are critical for success in mathematics, yet we continue this approach, which unintentionally, or maybe at this point, since we know better, intentionally, advantages some while disadvantaging others.

If our actions to segregate students are truly based on parental pushback, then the math community can do a better job of educating parents, students, administrators, teachers, and communities about the rigorous nature of middle school math. I hear from the math community continually that a depth of understanding in the 6th, 7th and 8th grade mathematics standards is more valuable than acceleration through these standards. Still our practices remain focused on acceleration. The math community needs to stand up to the notion that 8th grade algebra is a marker of success. Why can’t we be satisfied with quality, deep, rich, rigorous, differentiated, and heterogeneous 8th grade math classrooms focused on the 8th grade math standards for all children?  Acceleration or compaction of standards should be a choice for high school juniors and seniors who are leaning towards careers in math and sciences. We need to stop making these decisions for students in the middle grades or sometimes earlier.

My niece was offered the chance to accelerate in 8th/9th grade. I suggested she stay at grade level and get a strong foundation in algebra as a freshman. She took my advice, even though at times during those early high school years she thought math was too easy and that she had made the wrong choice. As a junior she took a compacted course of Algebra 2 first semester and Precalculus second semester (blocked classes so no content was skipped) and then AP Calculus as a senior. She went on to take Calculus 2 as a freshman in college at UW-Madison, where she is an engineering major, and she received an A. I often wonder if she had chosen the route of middle school math acceleration, whether she would still be looking at engineering as her major. Maybe yes, but a weak foundation may also have discouraged her at some point along her high school math journey. Her experience tells me there is no reason to hurry or fear for the future math options if we fail to accelerate in middle school.

Dangerous, fixed mindsets and deficit language among middle school staff is rampant within the daily conversations I witness. I hear teachers use phrases and terms like: high kids, low kids, those kids, ”regular” class, ELL class, special education class, high class, smart kids, good kids, kids that just don’t care, kids who “can’t,” etc., and I believe the systematic way we divide kids into the regular and accelerated tracks plays into the language I hear from teachers, staff, and students. In return, the teachers feel these tracks are needed because of their fixed mindsets and beliefs about student abilities. It is a vicious cycle that we have a moral obligation to interrupt.

The conversation needs to start now. Deficit language needs to be called out and replaced. Instead of high students we might say “students who we decided to accelerate because they performed well in our biased system.” Maybe that alone will get us thinking about the long term dangers of our choices to track our middle school classrooms. Maybe when we return to schooling in-person we will be ready to show that we value all students by creating on-grade-level heterogeneous classrooms.

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Algebra Tiles Blue Icon

Algebra Tiles Session

  • Used throughout CPM middle and high school courses
  • Concrete, geometric representation of algebraic concepts.
  • Two-hour virtual session,
  •  Learn how students build their conceptual understanding of simplifying algebraic expressions
  • Solving equations using these tools.  
  • Determining perimeter,
  • Combining like terms,
  • Comparing expressions,
  • Solving equations
  • Use an area model to multiply polynomials,
  • Factor quadratics and other polynomials, and
  • Complete the square.
  • Support the transition from a concrete (manipulative) representation to an abstract model of mathematics..

Foundations for Implementation

This professional learning is designed for teachers as they begin their implementation of CPM. This series contains multiple components and is grounded in multiple active experiences delivered over the first year. This learning experience will encourage teachers to adjust their instructional practices, expand their content knowledge, and challenge their beliefs about teaching and learning. Teachers and leaders will gain first-hand experience with CPM with emphasis on what they will be teaching. Throughout this series educators will experience the mathematics, consider instructional practices, and learn about the classroom environment necessary for a successful implementation of CPM curriculum resources.

Page 2 of the Professional Learning Progression (PDF) describes all of the components of this learning event and the additional support available. Teachers new to a course, but have previously attended Foundations for Implementation, can choose to engage in the course Content Modules in the Professional Learning Portal rather than attending the entire series of learning events again.

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Building on Instructional Practice Series

The Building on Instructional Practice Series consists of three different events – Building on Discourse, Building on Assessment, Building on Equity – that are designed for teachers with a minimum of one year of experience teaching with CPM instructional materials and who have completed the Foundations for Implementation Series.

Building on Equity

In Building on Equity, participants will learn how to include equitable practices in their classroom and support traditionally underserved students in becoming leaders of their own learning. Essential questions include: How do I shift dependent learners into independent learners? How does my own math identity and cultural background impact my classroom? The focus of day one is equitable classroom culture. Participants will reflect on how their math identity and mindsets impact student learning. They will begin working on a plan for Chapter 1 that creates an equitable classroom culture. The focus of day two and three is implementing equitable tasks. Participants will develop their use of the 5 Practices for Orchestrating Meaningful Mathematical Discussions and curate strategies for supporting all students in becoming leaders of their own learning. Participants will use an equity lens to reflect on and revise their Chapter 1 lesson plans.

Building on Assessment

In Building on Assessment, participants will apply assessment research and develop methods to provide feedback to students and inform equitable assessment decisions. On day one, participants will align assessment practices with learning progressions and the principle of mastery over time as well as write assessment items. During day two, participants will develop rubrics, explore alternate types of assessment, and plan for implementation that supports student ownership. On the third day, participants will develop strategies to monitor progress and provide evidence of proficiency with identified mathematics content and practices. Participants will develop assessment action plans that will encourage continued collaboration within their learning community.

Building on Discourse

In Building on Discourse, participants will improve their ability to facilitate meaningful mathematical discourse. This learning experience will encourage participants to adjust their instructional practices in the areas of sharing math authority, developing independent learners, and the creation of equitable classroom environments. Participants will plan for student learning by using teaching practices such as posing purposeful questioning, supporting productive struggle, and facilitating meaningful mathematical discourse. In doing so, participants learn to support students collaboratively engaged with rich tasks with all elements of the Effective Mathematics Teaching Practices incorporated through intentional and reflective planning.